Caroline G. L. Cao received her Ph.D. in mechanical & industrial engineering from the University of Toronto. Her research expertise is in the design and evaluation of enabling technology (e.g., robotics, image guidance, haptics) for minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery. She is a recipient of the National Science Foundation Career Award, a recent US Fulbright Scholar, and the International Chair of RFI Atlanstic 2020. Professor Cao is an elected Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Professor Cao’s current research focus is on Industry of the Future.